ajax访问WebService跨域问题

2017-12-07 丨寒灬冰丿

1、先看一个网站介绍,了解跨域问题 HTTP访问控制(CORS)

2、像谷歌、火狐浏览器对一些非简单请求会触发 预检请求 ,首先使用  OPTIONS   方法发起一个预检请求到服务器,然而IE浏览器没有预检请求

3、发起预检请求,如果想要后台处理成功,那么就需要服务器处理返回响应,设置允许的请求头,设置允许跨域等(对WebService研究较浅,没有找到对预检请求设置的方法,后期会深入学习)

4、在测试中使用谷歌,如果不设置contenttype,默认为 text/plain;charset=UTF-8或 application/x-www-form-urlencoded ,更改为其他两个都不会触发预检请求

5、谷歌浏览器ajax设置contenttype为text/xml时,对JDK发布的WebService和CXF发布的WebService错误显示如下

JDK发布的WebService服务

1)后台报错、找到com.sun.xml.internal.ws.transport.http.server.WSHttpHandler这个类,在handle方法处打断点,可以在参数中看到请求的信息,method为options;然后运行完控制台报错(使用IE就没事)

com.sun.xml.internal.ws.transport.http.server.WSHttpHandler handleExchange

警告: Cannot handle HTTP method: OPTIONS

这就是浏览器的预检请求导致,网上有设置如果检测到请求方法是OPTIONS就设置返回状态为200

2)前台报错、console下报错:OPTIONS http://localhost:8088/aaa net::ERR_EMPTY_RESPONSE

然后在network下找到发送的ajax请求,点击,Request Headers有警告Provisional headers are shown

正常情况下请求头会显示一些其他信息如Accept-Language、Accept-Encoding等

3)ajax不设置contenttype、请求后台就报错

Unsupported Content-Type: text/plain;charset=UTF-8 Supported ones are: [text/xml]

com.sun.xml.internal.ws.server.UnsupportedMediaException: Unsupported Content-Type: text/plain;charset=UTF-8 Supported ones are: [text/xml]

也就是建议设置Content-Type为text/xml;但是设置成text/xml就会触发预检测

前台Console报错   No 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' header is present on the requested resource. Origin 'http://localhost:8083' is therefore not allowed access. The response had HTTP status code 415.估计是后台异常,没有设置响应头非同源访问的权限

此处可以看到请求头默认Content-Type为text/plain;charset=UTF-8

CXF发布的WebService服务

1)、后台报错、找到类org.apache.cxf.binding.soap.interceptor.ReadHeadersInterceptor断点到handleMessage方法,查看message参数

后台报错

Interceptor for {http://server.hjp.com/}PersonService1Service has thrown exception, unwinding now

org.apache.cxf.binding.soap.SoapFault: Error reading XMLStreamReader.

可见也是预检测请求导致

2)前端报错:OPTIONS http://localhost:5555/hello 500 (Server Error)和Response to preflight request doesn't pass access control check: No 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' header is present on the requested resource. network中的ajax请求头中没有Content-Type

3)如果去掉ajax对contenttype设置,前端会报错No 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' header is present on the requested resource

6、ajax请求WebService代码(使用IE访问没问题)

1)、jQuery形式

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
    <script src="jquery-3.1.0.min.js"></script>
</head>
<body>
<div id="d"></div>
<script type="text/javascript">
    $.ajax({
        url: "http://localhost:5555/hello",
        type: "POST",
        contentType:"text/xml;charset=UTF-8",
        data: getPostData(),
        success: function (data) {
            var doc = $(data).find('return');
            doc.each(function(){
                $('#d').html($(this).text());
            });
        }
    });
//定义满足SOAP协议的参数。
    function getPostData() {
        var soap='<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>'+
                '<soapenv:Envelope xmlns:soapenv="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/" xmlns:ser="http://server.hjp.com/">' +
                '<soapenv:Header/>' +
                '<soapenv:Body>' +
                '<ser:sayHello>' +
                '<arg0>aaa</arg0>' +
                '</ser:sayHello>' +
                '</soapenv:Body>' +
                '</soapenv:Envelope>';
        return soap;
    }
</script>
</body>
</html>

2)、原生Ajax形式

<html>
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8"/>
    <title>通过ajax调用WebService服务</title>
    <script>
        function getXhr(){
            var xhr = null;
            if(window.XMLHttpRequest){
                //非ie浏览器
                xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
            }else{
                //ie浏览器
                xhr = new ActiveXObject('Microsoft.XMLHttp');
            }
            return xhr;
        }
        var xhr =getXhr();
        function sendMsg(){
            var name = document.getElementById('name').value;
            //服务的地址
            var wsUrl = 'http://localhost:8088/tongwei';

            //请求体
            var soap=getPostData(name);

            //打开连接
            xhr.open('POST',wsUrl,true);

            //重新设置请求头
            xhr.setRequestHeader("content-type","text/xml");

            //设置回调函数
            xhr.onreadystatechange = _back;

            //发送请求
            xhr.send(soap);
        }

        function _back(){
            if(xhr.readyState == 4){
                if(xhr.status == 200){
                    var ret = xhr.responseXML;
                    var msg = ret.getElementsByTagName('return')[0];
                    document.getElementById('showInfo').innerHTML = msg.textContent;
                }
            }
        }
        //定义满足SOAP协议的参数。
        function getPostData(name) {
            var postdata ='<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>'+
                    '<soapenv:Envelope xmlns:soapenv="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/" xmlns:ton="http://tongwei/">' +
                '<soapenv:Header/>' +
                '<soapenv:Body>' +
                '<ton:test>' +
                '<parStr>'+name+'</parStr>' +
                '</ton:test>' +
                '</soapenv:Body>' +
                '</soapenv:Envelope>';
        return postdata;
        }
    </script>
</head>
<body>
<input type="button" value="发送SOAP请求" onclick="sendMsg();">
<input type="text" id="name">
<div id="showInfo">
</div>
</body>
</html>

7、java后台URL请求WebService方式

public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {


          /*
         *1.创建一个url
         *2.打开一个连接
         *3.设置相关参数
         *4.创建输出流,用来发送SAOP请求
         *5.发送完,接收数据
         *6.用输入流获取webservice中的内容
         */

        URL url = new URL("http://localhost:5555/hello");
        HttpURLConnection connection = (HttpURLConnection)url.openConnection();
        connection.setRequestMethod("POST");//必须设置为POST方式,而且必须是大写的
        connection.setDoInput(true);//因为有输入参数也有输出参数所以都为真
        connection.setDoOutput(true);
        connection.setRequestProperty("Content-Type", "text/xml;charset=utf-8");

        OutputStream out = connection.getOutputStream();
//下面替换尖括号是测试传送xml文本字符串测试的
        //String str="<list><item><email>aaa!qq</email></item></list>";
        //str=str.replaceAll("<","<").replaceAll(">",">");
        StringBuilder soap=new StringBuilder();
        soap.append("<soapenv:Envelope xmlns:soapenv="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/" xmlns:ser="http://server.hjp.com/">");
        soap.append("<soapenv:Header/>");
        soap.append("<soapenv:Body>");
        soap.append("<ser:sayHello>");
        soap.append("<arg0>aaa</arg0>");
        soap.append("</ser:sayHello>");
        soap.append("</soapenv:Body>");
        soap.append("</soapenv:Envelope>");
        String argo=soap.toString();
        System.out.println(argo);
        out.write(argo.getBytes());//发送SAOP请求
        InputStream stream = connection.getInputStream();
        byte[] b = new byte[1024];
        int len=0;
        StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer();
        while((len=stream.read(b))!=-1){
            String s = new String(b, 0, len, "utf-8");
            buffer.append(s);
        }

        System.out.println(buffer.toString());

    }

8、请求头和响应头编写及处理返回值是借助SOAPUI工具,界面如下

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